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Archaeological cultures

  



Kur-Araz culture
The culture related to last Eneolithic and early Bronze Age (fourth millennium BC - III millennium BC).  This culture, which begins from the territory of Azerbaijan, had covered a vast area from North Caucasus to Mesopotamia, from Eastern Anatolia to Central Asia. As it was at first time found during archeological excavations in Azerbaijan, it was named as Kura - Araz culture.
This culture for the first time in the 1940-es was determined on the basis of the materials found in the areas between the Kura-Araz Rivers. At that time there Kura-Araz culture were related to the Eneolith. Later it became clear that borders of this culture is wide from the area between the Kura-Araz rivers, and its monuments related to chronological framework of first  Bronze Age from mid of fourth millennium BC to end of third millennium BC. 

Ashel culture 
Asel culture was developed on the basis of Guruchay culture and constituted its second stage. Findings related to the Ashel culture have been found in Gazakh region of Azerbaijan, in camps of Gayalyl, Ajıdara, Sishquzey and from other monuments. However, the most abundant material and cultural patterns of the Ashel culture were discovered from Azykh cave. The early and middle stages of Ashel culture were widely represented in the Azykh cave. Early Ashel relates to 700-500 thousand years ago. Early Ashel culture in Azykh was developed on the basis of Guruchay culture and was its continuation. Many stone products (more than 2000), fire residues, various animal bones, plant powder was found from this layer. Small labor tools, cutting tools and etc occupy a special place. For the volume cutting tools are similar to those found in Olduvay, Ubeydiya, Terra-Amata. 

Guruchay culture
Mainly has been studied on the basis of Azykh cave. Guruchay, which was running near the cave, was of great importance in the life of the primitive people. Therefore, material and cultural remains of new archaeological culture discovered from 7-10th layers of Azykh cave were named as Guruchay culture. During the complex investigations carried out it was determined that Guruchay culture had some development phases. Labor tools related to Guruchay culture is close to African Olduvay culture.

Anazaga place of residence 
Anazaga place of residence is located near to Gobustan Reserve building, on the top of Mount Boyukdas. Here, the material -culture remains of the Kura-Araz culture were found. Finds are glossy black-and brown-colored pieces of crockery, stone tools, clay wheels and other items.

Babadarvis place of residence
Babadarvis place of residence is located to the west of Mingachevir, south-west of the Gazakh city, on the left bank of Agstafachay. It is related to eneolithic period. Here pieces of clay pots, household objects, animal bones and burned remnants of grain have been found.

Boyukdash place of residence
Boyukdash place of residence has been found on the top of the mountain of the same name. Here remains of multi room building made of some stones of square form were identified. Among the remains of the destroyed building, traces of pieces of clay plaster on the stick was found.

Leylatapa monument
Leylatapa monument from this culture is located in the Agdam region. The buildings of this monument are of quadrangular form. 12 potter furnaces were found from monument, and such form of furnaces were never found in monuments of similar period in the Caucasus. Most interesting finds of Leylatapa monument are children's graves buried in the 4 clay bowls.

Kechili hill monument
The other monument related to Leylatapa culture is Kechili hill monument. The monument is located in the north of the village Kechili of Shamkir region. Chronological comparison of the materials found in Kechili hill monument, at the same time flat bottom clay vessels found here prove that this residence belongs to the final stage eneolith period.

Boyukkasik monument
One of the characteristic monuments of Leylatqpa culture is Boyukkasik monument. The monument was fond in 2004 during the construction of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline during excavation works in the territory of Tovuz region. Besides quadrangular form of building remains facts of children burying in clay containers were found, too.

The Gobustan rock paintings 
Gobustan petroqlifs are also called as open-air museum. It is located in the foothills of the Great Caucasus Mountains in the south-east of a rocky massif, near the Caspian Sea, on a modern highway built along the road to the ancient Shirvan. The number of rock drawings, the ancient settlements under the rocks and burial mounds has been found here. The rocks in the region of 15 thousand-year history of life – from the upper Paleolithic period to the Middle Ages are reflected in a definite period of time. 
The first researcher of Gobustan archeologist Isaq Jafarzade in 1939 for the first time informed the world about this unique place. Gobustan was nominated for inclusion in the list of “World Heritage" of UNESCO. 

Aghsal place of residence 
Aghsal place of residence is situated near the village of Arafsa of Julfa region. The monument has been studied only in the research of exploration nature. Pieces of clay pots, the stones for grain from the Middle Bronze Age have been discovered. Among the findings there are also pieces of painted container.

Nakhchivan necropolis
Nakhchivan necropolis is located in the north of the city, on the left side of the highway Nakhchivan -Shahbuz. Graves have been drilled in the soil is of square-shaped, and directed to the north-south, east-west directions. There were couple and collective buries in the graves.
Black, gray, polychrome painted clay vessels, bronze bracelets, rings, earrings and beads made of different minerals were found from graves of Nakhchivan necropolis. According to the archeological dig, necropolis related to the XV-XVII BC centuries.

Julfa necropolis
Julfa necropolis was destroyed in the 1939-40 during construction of railway.
Materials of this necropolis are presently kept in the Georgian State Museum of History. Materials published by V.H.Aliyev related to XIII-IX centuries BC.

Khoshbulag kurgans 
They are stone-covered graves of kurgan type in the village of Khoshbulag of Dashkesen region. Skeleton in these graves is turned and wrapped from joints, and head towards west. In such graves as a rule, black-colored, three-handle jug-shaped plates are more widespread. Here, as well as gold, silver and bronze jewelry was also found.

Kultepe
It is located 40 km to the east from Fuzuli city center, near the village of Bala Bahmanli, in the plains. Multi layer ancient place of residence was found here. During archaeological research samples of material culture, examples of simple and glazed pots, arrow spearheads, sickles teeth, stones, etc were collected related to the end of eneolith and Middle Ages from Kultepe. Finding and researches show that at eneolith and Bronze ages there were the great places of residences of local farmer communities, the castle in the Middle Ages.

Shomulutapa
It is located 7-8 km north of Fuzuli city center, on the right bank of Kondalanchay, and it is the settlement of first and middle Bronze Age period. Samples found from here shows that Shomultapa belonged to farmer-owned stock-breeder communities of III-II millennium of BC.

Shortapa settlement 
Shortapa settlement is located inside of Ibadulla village of Sharur region, in the left bank of the Araz River. During the excavation remains of clay pots and pieces of fire equipment were discovered. As a result of investigations carried out in the settlement pieces of clay pots for this period were also collected. 
The cultural layers of the first, middle and last periods of the Bronze Age were found at settlement. 

Mingechevir settlement
Mingechevir settlement is located near to Yevlakh city, at the right bank of the Kura River, in the central part of Bozdag valley. Here Kura-Araz layer, layers of Bronze era and ancient period were found in sub-layer. The remains of the four residential building were found and studied in the area of the excavation related to early Bronze Age. 

Karki settlement 
Karki settlement is located in Sadarak region, in south of the village of Karki, on the mountain Tejkar. The remains of walls built of big rocks were found at settlement. Surface materials consist of items of medium bronze period, monochrome painted clay vessels of the Bronze Age, grain stones.

Plovdag
Plovdag monuments are located 2,0-2,5 km north of the Araz River, on the left bank of Gilanchay, in the foothills of the mountain of the same name. The archeological exploration works carried out in Plovdag and around had shown that there were at each side of the mountain, the remains of the ancient period, graves and settlements. Surface contours of the two settlements have been determined yet in Plovdag. The first of them is at the foot of the mountain to the south, in intermontane valley, the second is located at the west foot of the mountain. 

Saritepe
Saritepe is one of the most magnificent monuments located in Gazakh, the western region of Azerbaijan and related to Iron Age. 
During the archaeological excavations enough buildings of economic and religious character were discovered in Sarıtepe. It had been studied that in terms of the nature of these monuments, they were not   belonged to one family or any small group, but to all community.

Uzuntepe settlement 
Uzuntepe settlement is in the form of longish hill. The cultural-material remains are the stone tools, pieces of clay pots, animal figures, fire facilities.

Shusha cave camp
The settlement of people lived in Stone Age. It is located in the south to Shusha city, on the left bank of the river Dashalti. During excavations carried out in the Shusha camp 4 stone items of Paleolithic period were found.

Dash Salahli cave 
The largest cave from Aveydag caves group. It is located on volcanic rocks from west to Gazakh region. Two cultural layers were revealed during archaeological excavations in the Dash Salahli cave. Archaeological materials were found from 1st layer.  Materials related to Paleolithic period were found from layer II. At the entrance to the cave, the fire place with 2 meters in diameter was found. Stone wares and animal bones were found from fire ashes. Most of the bones of animals were broken and burnt. 

Damjili cave 
Damjili cave was the cave-camp and located in Gazakh region, under the lime rocks, which stretches up to the river Khram from Dash Salahli village, in  south-east of Aveydagh. 
Ayerdagh is the biggest group of caves. Due to water leaking from natural cracks it is called Damjili. During archaeological excavations nucleus from mixed layers, sharp-pointed, curry-comb, knife type tools, flat shaped knives, arrow heads, and others were found. 

Goytapa
It is located on the western coast of Lake Urmia, South Azerbaijan. The monument is dated to the period of Manna state and the claims put forward on existing of any province of Manna state. The first archaeological excavations were carried out in Goytepe under the leadership of T. Berton Brown, by the British Archaeological Society. Not all layers of the hill were discovered. Some surfaces of the hill were excavated and eight consecutive layers relating to a long period starting from the third millennium to the Islamic period. 

Torpaqqala
Torpaqqala is the city related to the early Middle Ages in Azerbaijan.
The monument is located on the left bank of the river Alazan, on the hill of the same namel, 25 km south-west of the present-day city Gakh. 
Different samples of remains of buildings, places of the oven and the hearth, the industrial centers of the cubes, the remains of pottery and glass products, bones have been found in Torpaqqala

Yedditapa 
It is located in 6 km north-east from Fuzuli city center, near the village of Mirza Jamally. It is considered as archaeological monuments of the Bronze Age. Yedditapa consists of about twenty kurgans. In 1972 during archeological excavations stone box grave of the early Middle Ages and earlier periods were discovered from Yedditapa (IV-VI centuries BC). Clay, glass, bronze plates, copper and silver jewelry, sculptures, musical instruments, ax, spear, sword, metal buckle, bell, etc. were found from graves. 

Oranqala city ruins 
Research of ancient Ornqala residence in Mil plain began in early 1933. This expedition was the first scientific expedition to explore the place of residence Oranqala. Samples of  separate pieces of Rey ceramics found from city Oranqala  and a arge quantity of copper coins shows that the period of the renaissance of the city coincides with Seljuk and Mongol marches (XII-XIV centuries). It should be noted when we say period of the Mongol invasions, we mean the period of Hulakiler state. Thus, during the first Mongol attacks the city was subjected to strong destruction, and could not revive for a long time. 



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