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Flora of Azerbaijan
The territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan has a rich flora. In relatively large area all kinds of plants that found in the world, were spread in the republic. About 4500 species of higher, spore-bearing flowering plants combined in 125 groups and 920 sorts. For the total number of species of the flora Azerbaijan is richer than any other Caucasus countries. Kinds of vegetation found in republic consist of 66% of the total amount of plant species growing in the Caucasus. Besides widely spread plants in the Caucasus and other regions, about 240 endemic plants specific just to the Azerbaijani flora exist here. Spreading of vegetation is conditioned by the formation of the region from physical and geographical points of view, current climate and soil conditions, the vertical landscape and a number of other factors. 
Thus, in the plains areas of republic till the 200 m of heights desert and semi-desert vegetation and mire vegetation had developed. Desert type plants are found mainly on the shore of the Caspian sea, south-eastern Shirvan, Mil, Mugan and Shirvan. Depending on the salinity of the soil here black saline, shahsevdi, meaty, salty, winter grass plants are spread. Semi-desert vegetation occupy larger areas in Shirvan, Salyan, Mugan, Mil and Garabagh steppes, as well as Jeyranchol, Gobustan and along the Araz river plains. In Kur-Araz, Gobustan and Jeyranchol zone formation the wormwood in the semi-deserts is dominated. Other formations like garagan (Kur-Araz) and dengiz (Gobustan, Nakhichevan) formations are more typical. In semi-deserts: bulbous qırtıjı, Japanese fire grass, solid quramat, east bozagı, chilingburnu, wheat grass and a range of salinity (chatter, shahsevdi, yellow-headed, winter grass, etc.), grasses. Tugay forests are unique to these areas. In particular, major trees of forests spread in the Kur, Araz and Gabirry valleys are oak, maple, ash, willow, etc. In the foothills plains of the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus in heights from 200 m to 600-700 m, sometimes with a height of 1200 meters, mainly annual and perennial xerophytic plants and bushes were spread. In upper parts the areas bordering at height of 1800-2200 meters covered with forests. The total area of  Republic of Azerbaijanis 86.6 million hectares. And total area of Azerbaijani forests is 1213.7 thousand hectares. From them 989.5 thousand hectares of area is covered with forest, which is 11.4% of the total area. Per capita forest area is 0.12 ha, which is 4 times (0.48 ha) less than the average world-wide figure.  Even though the forests in Azerbaijan are less in area but they are rich in species. There 435 species of trees and bushes grow here, which includes the 70 endemic species. Broad-leaved forests is specific for all territory of the republic. Such type of forests are spread more in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, the Talysh Mountains’ low and middle parts. In particular, they form a single zone at the absolute height of 600-1600 m in most places. In other areas they keep in field, narrow strips forms. Forests consist of mainly three types of trees - beech, hornbeam and oak. They comprise of 86.2 percent of all forest cover. Besides, birch, elm, poplar, alder, poplar, yalanyarpaq, willow, etc. broad-leaved trees grow here. Coniferous forests comprise 1.7 percent of the forests of republic. In Azerbaijan from 107 tree species growing naturally 7 are the coniferous trees. They are European qarajoka, Eldar pine-tree, pine hookes, polycarpous, heavy red and long bodied juniper trees. The Republic of Azerbaijan is home to many rare trees and bushes. Garajoka like rare plant of third period of relic forests is a pearl of the forests. The tree was spread in southern part of the Great Caucasus (Qabala), south-east (Pirgulu, Shamakhi region). Late growing but long lived garajoka never covered large areas. Azerbaijan is a native land of Eldar pine tree and its area of spreading is Eldar slot area of the front of the Jeyranchol valley. From relict and rare trees of the third period growing in Talysh mountains iron tree, Lankaran acacia, chestnut oak, azat, the Caucasus date, box-tree, wing nut, Hirkan fig-tree, Hirkan birch, etc are rare pearls of nature.



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