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Migration literature



The literature which has formed in the migration occupies important place in history of Azerbaijani literature, rich in ideas, passed through the many-field social development past, motley and rich in styles.  
Azerbaijani migration literature is as ancient as rich. In the Middle Ages prominent writers of Azerbaijan Khatib Tabrizi and Imadaddin Nasimi had created outside the country. 
Since early XX Azerbaijan migration literature has begun to form entirely. Azerbaijani Migration literature has been formed by creative forces that were forced to leave country for various foreign counties due to different social-political reasons. Among these reasons was to stand against the colonial policy of tsar Russia in Azerbaijan, pursuing of founders of Azerbaijani Democratic Republic by Bolsheviks. Life of captivity and exile emerged after the Second World War has played the definite part in development of the migration literature.
Senses of nostalgia for country, feelings in abroad, inclinations of different literary views are  strong in the migration literature. Azerbaijani literature of migration arisen in the difficult condition has served at the same time to introduce Azerbaijan to the world.
Azerbaijani migration literature has developed in four stages. 

I stage
During 1909-1910 the tsar government began to implement some reforms in the Caucasus and government was strongly controlling of activities of free thinking intellectuals of Azerbaijan connected with these reforms. Due to this reason some writers were compelled to leave Azerbaijan. At I stage the Azerbaijani migration literature was founded and representatives of this time influenced well to forming of the ideology of migration literature. Among prominent representatives of this stage are Alibey Huseynzade, Ahmed bey Agaoglu and  Mammad Amin Rasulzade. It is necessary to note during living in Iran M.Rasulzade had begun to publish the first European standard newspaper İrani-novin in the East. Some works published later in Azerbaijan and Turkey were written by author while living in Iran. A.Huseynzada and A.Agaogli were living in this time in the Istanbul, they functioned in Turk  ojaqi and “Ittihad and Tereqqi” societies.

II stage
This stage covers the period from first years of soviet rule to WWII. That time the Bolsheviks implemented the heavy terror and repression against musavatists, ittihadists.  Some notable intellectual left Azerbaijan in the result of it. Among them were M.B.Mammadzade, A. Yurdsever, A. Topchubashov, Y.V.Chamanzaminli, J.Hajibeyov, A.Jafaroglu, K.Oder , H. Baykar, A.Ildirim and others. At this stage outstanding representative of Azerbaijani migration literature were lived with truth loving senses, motherland nostalgia, and some bitter fate.      
 During Soviet period the persons listed above were declared as traitors in their countries and the nation enemy image was created on them. At Soviet press letters are organized regularly and they was labeled with people enemy, motherland traitor. 
Azerbaijani newspaper and journals which began to publish from 1922 gave a great impetus to development of the migration literature. Works of the representatives of this time are published and spread   in Turkey, some countries of the Europe. Journals like “Yeni Qafqasya, Azeri-Turk, Odlu yurd, Azerbaijan country knowledge , Gurtulush , Bildirish”, Istiqlal etc  newspapers  were publishing in different cities of the Europe.

III stage
Beginning of this stage coincides with beginning of WWII. Many Azerbaijanis taken captive by Germans could not return home for political reasons. Soviet government was supposing that the soviet soldiers been captivated to Germans serve to organ of secret service of German. Therefore many soldiers released from captivity when retuned home used to be re-exiled or arrested. Among them were writers and poets that did not return to the Soviet Union after war and defining the future of development of Azerbaijani migration literature. It is necessary to note that compared to periods the creative potential of this period was not so big. But in spite of all difficulties, this generation of migrant writers could play significant role in development of our literature. Works of these writers were published in Azerbaijan newspaper publishing in Germany and inTurkey press. The most notable representatives were M. Kangarli, A.Daghly, S.Takiner, M.Musazade.

IV stage
It is necessary to note that there was a need for making the migration literature perfect. Sayyid Jafar Pishavari, Mahammad Biriya, Hamza Fathi, Hokuma Billuri, Balash Azeroglu, Medina Gulgun, Gulamrza Sabri Tabrizi, Gulamhuseyn Saedi, Mahammadali Mahmud, Hamid Nitqi  and another writer and poets had forced to migrate to various places of the world, some to  Northern  Azerbaijan. This process took place during 1945-46 after collapse of National Government of South Azerbaijan. So the “South theme began to arise and develop in Azerbaijan literature. Grief of divided Azerbaijan, country, nostalgia is considered as basic subject of the poetry 

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