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Housing and community economic


Housing and communal economy generally covers housing economy (the exploitation and the services of residential complex, renovation of settlements, planting greeneries there), and communal service fields (water supply, sewerage services, heating, electricity and gas supply, collection, transportation of the household wastes, and rendering it harmless, lift services, city’s electric transport, bathes, laundry, and  hotel economy). 
The value of the basic funds of the housing and communal economy was 1281.1 billion manats in 2003, as well as 1167.7 billion manats in housing economy and 119.4 billion manats in communal economy, and this comprised 15-16% of general basic funds. 
In 1920-87, the residents the total space of which was 63.5 million m2 were built. Total flat fund of the Republic was 3.5 million m2 till the late 1922, it was increased by 23.0 times reaching 80.4 million m2 till the end of 1987. As a result of the economic reforms, total flat fund in 2005 increased by 17.3% reaching to 104.0 million m2 in comparison with 1990, at the same time, city’s flat fund comprised 59.3 million m2, and rural flat fund was 44.7 million m2. 
In 2005, the personal dwelling space of the citizens increased by 57.4% reaching 90.0 million m2 in comparison with 1990, the socialized flat fund comprised 14.0 million m2. 
During 1990-2005, 20.3 million m2 of flats or 378 200 flats were privatized in the country. At the end of 2005, the total space of state and social flat fund in the country was 12.6 m2, as well as 13.9 m2 in the urban areas and 11.2 m2 in the rural areas; total residential space was 8.4 m2, in the urban areas being 9.0 m2, in the rural areas 7.8 m2. 
All flat fund consisted of 1.5 million flats (222 800 one-room, 618 200 two-room, 211 200 four and more room flats). 
In 2005, 2.1 million manats were spent to the capital repair of the state and social flat fund, total space of which was 86 600 m2. 
83.5% of the 430070,2 manats’ capital invested to the development of the housing and communal economy in 1993-98, belonged to the housing economy, 16.5% of it belonged to the communal economy. 
The dwelling conditions of 16 500 families, as well as, 1200 war veterans and disabled people, military employees who died, the families who have the same rights with them; 1900 Karabakh war participants and disabled people, the families of those who are in active military service; 1400 young families with many children, 10600 other families were improved. 
In 2005, the number of those who work in the field of housing and communal economy increased by 23.6% in comparison with 1995, and it comprised 3.4% of those who are in the field of economy. 
The housing and communal economy which has a complex management structure, include residents, their engineering equipment, the socialized garden fund, construction and maintenance institutions that serve to the flat fund and is the material and technical base of the executive system of flat fund, production, provision and other institutions. Regardless of the belonging of the flat fund, common control to the technical and sanitary condition is given to the housing and communal exploitation fields under the housing and communal unities of city and region executive bodies. 
One of the most important fields of the housing and communal economy is the drinkable water supply. In the beginning of the 20th century, the main work in the establishment of a new centralized water supply system was implemented by the famous oil owner Z.Tagiyev, due to the difficulties in the water industry in Baku. In 1910, the construction of the Shollar-Baku water pipe began on the basis of the English scientist William Lindlay’s project, and it was put into operation in 1917, with the capacity of providing 18 500 m3 drinkable water per day. After that, a new page was opened in the history of water supply of the Azerbaijan’s capital. The capacity of the Shollar water pipe reached to 109 000 m3 per day due to some technical measures taken at the end of the 30s of the 20th century. 
With the purpose of meeting the demands for the drinkable water in Baku the second water pipe (Khachmaz line) was put into use in 1944-58, the real capacity of which was 232 000 m3 per day. In 1980, the water given to the network from the first and second water pipes of Baku comprised 304 500 m3 per day or 24.1% of all drinkable water. 
During 1951-1956, Jeyranbatan water reservoir was constructed in the place of “Deveyatagi” and “Jeyranbatan” saline ponds which are situated in the north-west of the Absheron peninsula and in 1957, the construction of Devechi-Samur canal the maximum capacity of which was 25 m3 per second was completed, and beginning from 1957 the water reservoir the capacity of which was 186.0 million m3 began to be filled with water. 
One of the main superior features of this water basin is that water in this basin keeps its natural component for a long time and as a result, the quality of the water is increased in the clearing process. Today, the capacity of the water pipe is 9.5 m3 per second. 
Till 1969, Baku and Sumgayit were provided with drinkable water from 3 sources: Shollar, Khachmaz water pipes and Jeyranbatan water reservoir. 
During 1970-1971, the first Kura water pipe the capacity of which was 3.92 m3 per second was given to use. During 1978-86, the second Kura water pipe system in the capacity of 6.3 m3 per second was constructed and put into operation parallel to the first Kura water pipe. 
The construction of the Kura water pipes provided Gunashli and Ahmadli housing areas of Baku with drinkable water. At the same time, fundamental construction and reconstruction work was conducted in the water network within the city. The central water reservoir and pump stations that are crucial in the water supply were constructed. In 1960-70s, as there was water supply of 273 l per day for a man, in 1970-90s this figure was 450-500 l. 
In recent years, more attention is given to this field by the Azerbaijan government. Large scale projects are being worked out in the direction of the reconstruction of water supply and sewerage systems, construction of new lines at the expense of both state fund and foreign investments. 
“Azersu” Stock Company was established by the order N 252, dated to 11.06.2004 by the President of the Republic, with aim of improving the water supply and sewerage services of the people, developing this field on the basis of market relationships, and increasing its efficiency. According to the “State Program on socio-economic development of the regions in the Azerbaijan Republic” covering the years of 2004-2008, the reconstruction work is being done  in the existing systems, new sewerage and water lines are being constructed for the purpose of increasing the quality of water supply and sewerage services in city and region centers. To completely meet the demands for drinkable water in Baku, the construction of a new water pipe of 262 km to Baku from Uguz-Qebele region (Oguz-Qebele-Baku water pipe) was successfully carried out. 
The construction of the urban sewerage system in Baku began in 1925, and in 1935, it was given to use. The construction of collectors within the city began in 1973 and also suburban collectors in 1976(the capacity is 800 000 m3). In 1988, there was constructed a big sewerage complex cleaning 600 000 m3 dirty water a day. In 1975-86s, the floating of dirty water to the water basin was dwindled by 26%. 
Nowadays, the suggestions were prepared on the improvement of the regional water supply and sewerage systems (2007-11) and the improvement strategy of Baku’s water supply and sewerage systems by the World Bank’s working group, and the realization of these suggestions will help to improve the sewerage systems, to provide the people with drinkable water which is suitable to the existing norms and standards in Baku, region centers, little towns and villages near them. 
At the beginning of the 50s of the previous century, “Red Star” station began to give steam to the neighboring oil-refining plants, and so, the station became the heating center. Just from this time, the establishment of the centralized heating supply in Azerbaijan began.  
The system of boiling houses in regions consisting of highly centralized and modern aggregates are being used from the 60s of the last century, it is related with the establishment of new residential massifs in Baku and other industrial cities the republic. 
Especially during the 1970-80s, there were substantial changes in the field of heat supply of the country, several boiling houses were constructed and given to use.
In the 80s of the last century, about 65% of the heat supply system in Baku was provided just at the expense of the regional boiling houses. 
Due to the 08.06.2005 N 847  order of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic on the “Improvement of the management in the heat supply field of the Azerbaijan Republic” for the purposes of fundamentally improving the reliable and qualitative provision of the heat supply services of people and other consumers, developing this field stage by stage on the principles of the market economy, increasing its efficiency, involving  investments to this field “Azer heat supply” open stock company was established, and this company was empowered with the fulfillment of the heat supply issues of the residents, homes, buildings, as well as, social and other objects.  
Nowadays, big projects are being worked out to improve the natural gas supply of the people. According to the State Programs adopted, the natural gas supply of all regions of the republic (Nakhchivan AR included) has begun since 2004. “State Program on the development of the fuel-energy complex of the Azerbaijan Republic (2005-2015)” for the improvement of electricity supply, which is one of the important communal services, intends to put into use the powers of the electricity in 1800 MWt capacity in coming years. 
During 1990-2005, water pipes of 1573.8 km, sewerage lines of 129.5 km, heat supply lines of 13.6 km, and gas lines of 4238.7 km were given to the exploitation. Reconstruction work of the water supply systems in Baku and its suburbs was done, Kura and Jeyranbatan main water cleaning units were restored, highly productive regional pump stations complexes were reconstructed, pump station in the blocks were restored, main and urban water distributing pipelines were renewed. Imishli city water supply system, built on the credit allocated by Germany’s KfW Bank for the restoration of water supply systems of the cities in the communal infrastructure, was put into operation. 
The development of  the management in housing sphere and competition environment in the service system, improvement of contract relationships, improvement of state regulation and control mechanism of flat fund and communal objects, protection and defense of the rights of flat owners, improvement of the services’ quality and maintenance of flat funs, ensuring the establishment of unity institutions of owners, increasing the level of communal services ,as well as, electricity, water, gas, communication supply of the population, especially, rural population to the modern level, keeping up the restructuring measures in these fields, the application of card system in communal payments are the main branches of the extensive reforms  in housing and communal economy. 

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