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About sculpture works



Sculpture art is one of the types of fine art. Human or any image object is created in volumed form in the sculpture. Normally, the opportunities of sculpture are limited in comparison to painting in description of human, and sometimes the animals (animal genre).
There are 2 kinds of sculptures: volumed or round sculptures, relief sculptures.
Plan, light background, weight and volume play a great role in making the statue better.
Various materials are used in the preparation of the statues: stone (marble, limestone, sandstone, granite, etc.), wood, bone, metal (bronze, iron, bronze, etc.), clay, burnt clay, ceramics (terracotta, majolica, pottery, china, etc.), gypsum and other materials. In addition to traditional materials, modern sculpture uses quite different materials: there sculptors that make monuments from glass, ice, snow, paper etc.

In general there 3 areas of sculpture.
1. Monumental
2. Decorative
3. Machine sculpture

The most elementary form of the sculpture is figures made of stone. Attributed to the Middle Ages, human figures of stone found in around of the cities of Shamakhi and Aghdam are considered the improved samples of our sculpture making. Stone carving samples in Bayil castle (XIII century), and ram and horse figures on the tombs (XV-XIX centuries) can be regarded as a new and memorable page of the sculpture.
There is a figure of ram from stone made in commemoration of demised Safarali in Bilav village of Ordubad region of Nakhichevan in 1088  (Greg. the years 1677-1678). It is known from the signature on the monument that the ram statue was made by Abid. So far, other ram statues on graves of the same village in the XVII century were made by this sculptor Abid.
Among the most famous examples of the art of sculpture Castle Bail, or Sabail of Shirvanshahs in the port of Baku was built in the XIII century can be shown as a monument of the architecture. The writings and protruded images on these monuments played a crucial role in the preparation of decorative images of the building. On Bail Rocks along with writings the images of human and animals (tiger, camel, horse, bull, bird) were worked in the style of in-depth carving. Bail Stones with frieze nature comprised a decorative element of great architectural monument located once on land.  

The development history of sculpture in Azerbaijan
In the creation of today\'s picture of art of sculpture the painting school opened in Baku and mastering of local staff to sculpture art in the central cities of the Soviet Union had played a major role.
Bringing together a number of sculptors of Azerbaijan and their uniting around the one organization comes to the Soviet period. But before that there were masters of plastic art in Azerbaijan. The studies of recent years show that   until 1920 the sculpture works were created in Azerbaijan. These samples were prepared by folk masters, as well as professional sculptors, artists educated in Russia and Europe.        
During the period of Azerbaijan Peoples’ Republic the sculptors, whose name were unknown, worked and created their art. Due to failure to realize of all projects by the Peoples’ Republic because of short term power there is no exact information about the works and as well as authors. But there was enough information in these sources about the existence of such projects. For example, professional sculptor Zeynal Alizadeh tokk an active part in preparation of state coat of arms, some order and medals. 
In connection to the formation of modern professional sculpture of Azerbaijan a series of monuments was erected in Baku, the national sculpture staff grew.  In 1920-30-es with the participation of the first sculptors of Azerbaijan Ibrahim Guliyev, as well as Elizabeth Tripolskaya, Pinkhos Shabsay living in Azerbaijan and others the sculptures began to erect in Baku.

Sculpture education
Previously, the sculpture department at the Azerbaijan State University of Art was separated and the Academy of Art of Azerbaijan was established. At present, the high school, which is headed by Academician Omar Eldarov, prepares many talented sculptors.
There are professional sculptors among 100-120 members of the Union of Artists, which represent the professional and folk section. Latter are engaged in works on granite, marble and other. Sculptor that wants to be a member of the Union of Artists should at least have personal 5-6 exhibitions. 

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