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Historical territories


At last quarter of the VIII century BC Sarqon II had issued a decree on then “king road” leading to Mazamua area of south of Urmu lake from present-day Kirkuk region called Arrapha that this road to be repaired.The person giving information about the execution of the decree had written at the end of manuscript: I again go from Sare city to Dur-Atanate city. The Apparpans move from Dur-Atanate to Dur Taliti city. I again go from Dur Taliti to Azari city. 
Apparently, the route of king road passes from Arrapha-Atanate-Taliti-Azari cities or regions. The researchers, who published the text placed Azari city in Mazamua region. It is known from the history of this region previously lulu, turuk (Turk, zengi and kuman kins lived there. That region was in center of Manna state when the book was written. Therefore, it is natural that the  Azari city, which is located between present-day Kirkuk and Lake Urmia was named after  Turkic tribes Azari. 
After the Median government these places called as midiyd. Midiyd country was stretched from Arax river from the North to Alvand Mountain in the south and from Qizil ozen river in East to Urmu lake in west. Mad was divided into three parts: 
The first mad (Higmatana), the 2nd mad (Rey), the third mad (plains around Lake Urmia later - Atropatena). 
At that time, utis (Udins-utens), sudis, elyadikis, qaronais, ayniyanis, anariyaks, gils, viks, silovs (jilis), lopins (lipis), didiros,  gargars (kharkhars), kaspis and sanaros lived in the south of Araz river. Albans were formed from uniting of these branches. 
During Sasanids the important changes have taken place in Azerbaijan. Khosrov Anushiravan (531-578) divided Iran into four parts and assigned to four sepahbod. The sections were called as kost. One of these kosts was South kost (Aturpatgan) and Shirvan and Aran both located in Aturpatgan kost and their kings were subject to sepahbod of Aturpatgan. 
The writings of Pahlavi period on Derbent walls informs about north border of Azerbaijan that extended till this city during Sasanids. These writings were made in 553 BC by Sasanid marzban of Azerbaijan Barzini. 
In 22 of Hegira Azerbaijan was seized by Arab. At the eve of Arab invasion the territory of administrative unit of Azerbaijan included Hamadan, Azhar, from Zanjan till Derbent” (Derbendname, p.. 25). 
During an invasion of Arabs the northern part of Azerbaijan together with Arran and Sunik and part of Georgia was in the hands of the Khazars. After the conquest of Azerbaijan and Arran the area of these countries remained essentially unchanged, only the administrative name of this area was changed. For example, Ibn al-Faqih writes: The area of Azerbaijan is from Barda lands till  Zanjan. Varsan is the last point of Azerbaijani and its borders end with Arax (Ibn al-Faqih, p.. 285). 
Sometimes Arab sources showed Arran and Sunik as an independent province and sometimes as a part of Azerbaijan, as one of the mahals. Arran in the composition of the Azerbaijan was called as Upper Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan al-Ulya). However, Arabs mostly united these three geographical parts  - Azerbaijan, Armenia and Arran in one administrative unit and sets one governance and calls it Azerbaijan. 
Tabari that shows exactly the northern and southern borders of Azerbaijan writes: Azerbaijan is a great country, and Hamadan is located in the south and Derbent in the north (... Chronique de Tabari, p. 494). But Istakhri provides this information: We unite Armenia, Azerbaijan and Arran in the map and consider it as one country. Borders of Azerbaijan end at mountain range of Tarm and Zenjan. Then, this range reaches last point of Dinavar, and then it extends to opposite side of Shahrazur and Hulvan, and finally, approaches Tiger river, and then covers the borders of Armenia (Al-Istakhri, p.. 180-181). 
Completing the words of Ibn Havqal Istakhri, that made a map of Azerbaijan and traveled all its part, had created the general map of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Arran, and called it as “Map of Azerbaijan”. And he also made a map of the Caspian Sea and called all coastal areas till Derbent as Azerbaijan. 
There are different writings about the Azerbaijani marz in historical books. Arran and Shirvan sometimes are considered to be either Azerbaijani areas or referred to as an independent territory. 
During Kharazmshahs Mohammed Ibn Najib Bakran in his book “Jahanname” gives such explanations to Sultan Mohammed Kharazmshah: The River Kura is within Azerbaijan, there is 3 farshakh distance from Barda, Kura names  ... Janja (Ganja) and Nasuy (Nakhchivan) and its district are Azerbaijani province and its settlement is Ardabil 
During Safavids Azerbaijani province was divided in four beylerbeks: Tabriz Beylerbey, Chukhur Sad Beylerbey, and Shirvan Shirvan Beylerbey. These beylerbeys allow to form image on the historical geography of Azerbaijan. 
In historical letter of the period of Zaands the borders of Azerbaijan were shown. One of these letters was written by Kerim Khan Zend, and other by Alimurad Khan Zend. In those letters  Ganja, Karabakh, Nakhchivan, Shirvan, as well as the territory under power of  Alishakar; including Save, Arak and Hamadan, the present-day Iran, Hamadan, Tehran and plus a part of  Qum ostan and the eastern part of Kurdistan and one third of Kiramansah ostan, as well as part Loristan ostan were presented within the borders of Azerbaijan. 
Azerbaijan was divided into two parts between Russia and Iran in 1813 and 1828 on the basis of the Gulistan and Turkmenchay Treaties. The most of territory is in the south. 
In 1918, when Azerbaijan gained its independence after concession of the territory of Yerevan city and province its area was 99908.86 sq. km. And 13983.1 sq. km area accepted as a disputed territory and was intended to solve at future negotiation process. After April occupation (1920) and overthrow of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic  as a result of  policy of discrimination pursued by Soviet Russia the territory of Azerbaijan was further reduced. Borders of the newly established Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic were determined as 86.6 thousand sq.km. Thus, 27.2 thousand square kilometers of the territory of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was taken away from the people of Azerbaijan. 
The modern Republic of Azerbaijan re-gained its independence in 1991, and it has taken its place in world geography with 86.6 thsd. kms. 

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