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Ancient bridges

  


Bridges to the past history of Azerbaijan consist of an important part of our culture. Historically, on caravan routes of the most important commercial centers of Azerbaijan Derbent, Shamakhy, Ganja, Barda, Ardabil, Baku, Nakhchivan, Tabriz, and so on a lot of bridges were built.
Bridges in Azerbaijan sharply differ from each other for form, structure and construction. The samples of old bridges preserved till our dates confirm it. Among those bridges we can show Khudafarin bridges with 11 and 15 spans in Jabrayil region on the river Araz, Synyq Bridge on Khram village in Kazakh region, Ganja bridges over Ganja River, Nakhichevan bridges over Alinja River.

Khudaferin bridges
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Khudaferin Bridge was built in 1027 by Fazl son of Muhammad, the ruler of Shaddads (Fazl ibn Muhammad) on the river Araz. In the unique architectural monument, the bridge has traces of Azerbaijani architecture school. During the march of Agha Mohammed Shah Gajar to Azerbaijan although its part was destroyed but later was restored. Part of bridge built on natural rocks preserved till our dates. There is another bridge not far away from this bridge, which is also called as Khudaferin. The second bridge consisted of 11 sections and was built in XIII century during the Elkhanies. At present, only 3 spans of bridge are intact. Both bridges are located on the Silk Road.

Synyq Bridge
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Synyq Bridge in the Kazakh region is considered as one of the pearls of Azerbaijan\'s architecture of the mid-century. This bridge was built on Baku-Kazakh-Georgian border road over Khramchay. The bridge was built on five huge stands. There were caravanserais inside of both coastal stands.
In historical sources, in the work of many scholars, travelers, roads records there are opinions on this monument. While going from Tiflis to Iran Russian poet A.S.Griboyedov passed over this bridge and has been fascinated by its beauty. There is no exact information on author and date of building of this bridge. Some scholars say that it was built in XI-XII, some in XVII century.
It is known to the world of science that this bridge has been renovated in XVII century by king Rostom. 95 meter below the Synyq Bridge once upon a time there was another bridge. The left and the right bank foundations of that bridge are still preserved. Synyq Bridge was built in the XII century, after that bridge was broken.

Ganja bridges
Once upon a time three bridges built over the river Ganja separated Ganja in different parts. The research conducted during the period 1939-1940 pillars of Ganja bridges have been found scattered. However, along with these three bridges there were two bridges built over Ganjachay that separates the city of ancient Ganja in right and left banks located in 5 km north-east of Ganja, which had no information in the scientific literature. After the collapse of the 1st bridge, the 2nd bridge was built in the same place in view of the favorability of the place. Each of these bridges was built in the XII century, of which two are in use today.

Alinjachay bridges
One of the greatest ancient bridges is over the river Alinja in Nakhichevan area. This bridge is used by residents of Lakatan and Arafsa till date. While the bridges were built a special attention was given to the construction of bridges and strengthening of the stands. To prevent the wearing off the river valley was selected with straight and narrow passage for bridge. The bridge with narrow passage, with one stand on rock and another on base in the bank of river has enough durability.
Alinja bridge of Nakhchivan is a structure of XV-XVI century, with shaped arch of one span, at a height of 5 m over the water surface, with 2 m of overall size. The bridge was built from layer shape, easily grinding stone. The stones of arch of Alinja Bridge were carved and rest is partially grinding stones.

Aza Bridge
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One of the oldest bridges in the village of Ashagy Aza of Ordubad region is Aza Bridge over the Gilanchay. It is supposed that Aza Bridge was built in connection with the Great Silk Road on the important trade and caravan route connecting India and China with the countries of Europe and the Black Sea coast. Here, dried fruits, handicraft goods, and silk were exported. It was destroyed as a result of historical events several times and then was repaired.

Behrud Bridge
The Behrud Bridge is over Gilanchay near the village of Behrud. It has three spans. It is supposed to be built late XVII century and XVIII century. Behrud village preserved exception construction technique, the face of architecture.

Duylun River Bridge
Another bridge is in 12 km of Jananab village on the river Duylun. It is likely to have been built in the early XIX century. The bridge, built to the highest construction technique preserved its durability and national architecture level.

Gilanchay Bridge
The bridge over the Gilanchay in village of Der was built of sculpted stone, in fiver arches. It connects the cities to Julfa and Ordubad. Width is 3.5 m. While building the bridge the area of location was taken into account, and the distance between the arches were built in different sizes. There are 3 medium wave-cutter. Dar Bridge attributes to XVIII century.

Sultan Bridge 
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Among the ancient monuments of Tovuz Sultan Bridge was built over the river called Akhynjy and way to village passed through this bridge. According to sayings during its construction eggs were used to increase the durability and resistance. At the present time the new bridge was built and in use.

Tagly (Arch) bridge
One of the old engineering structures among the preserved monuments up today and having importance from historical and architectural point of view is Tagly (arch) bridge.
In XIX century there were 7 bridges in Guba province. But only Tagly (arch) bridge has been preserved until now. The necessity of the construction of the bridge was emerged late XVIII century and early XIX century. Wooden bridge was built over Gudyalchay on pillars in 1851. But this bridge has not a long lifetime. For this reason, it was necessary to make a new bridge in its place. The construction of the new bridge began in 1894.

Top Bridge
Top bridge in the Top village of the XII century is in the territory of Zangilan. This unique architectural complex is a good example of a medieval art of bridge building of Azerbaijan. Other bridge in Zangilan belongs to XIX century and is in village Hajialilar.

Synyq, Lalazar and Haji Badal bridges
It is said that the oldest bridge in the village of Garakishiler of Gubadly region is Synyq bridge.
The other two bridges - Lalazar and Haji Badal bridges were built in later periods. Lalazar Bridge with an nteresting architecture and the strange fate was built in 1867. Lalazar Bridge was built over the river Bargushad with oval shape n top and a flat surface.
Haji Badal Bridge is the sign of the XIX century. This bridge was built at the own expenses of one of respected elders of Demirchiler village Haji Badal. The bridge has a very interesting architecture.



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