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All about painting



Painting is one of the fine art types. The volume of the real world, color, space, material form of objects, light and air environment, etc. felt objectives are revived. Fine art has sections like painting, caricature, miniature, graphics, and mosaic art.
The main features of the art of painting are picturesqueness, emotionality. The images of these works based on unity of the ideas and characters, plot and characters. These components of the artistic image of the painting are specified with description and expression means like composition, color, light -shadow, perspective, rhythm and expression.
The art of painting are divided into various types due to varsity of artistic and aesthetic functions:
monumental painting, decorative painting, theatrical-decorative painting; miniature painting; easel painting. Each type has its own techniques and materials, methods of expression.
The most widespread form of painting is easel. Such works made on linen and wood with oily paints are created special machine called as “easel”. Mainly oil painting is made on its surface. Besides oil paint tempera paint, pastel, watercolor, gouache techniques are applied in painting, too. Compared to the works of monumental painting, easel painting is free and can be hung anywhere.
For its content the art of painting is divided into these genres: history painting, mythological painting, household painting; portrait painting; landscape painting, still life painting, etc. 

The history of painting 
From the beginning of the XV century the development of these genres is associated mainly with easel painting. Historical painting genre includes events in the history, including works that reflect the history of heroes.
Among the most ancient examples of this art were the Gobustan rock pictures of VIII-V centuries, pictures related to beginning of bronze era  (3rd millennium BC) in Parijınqıl and Ayıjınqılı mountains of Kalbajar, rock drawings on  mountains of Gamigaya to the north of Ordubad city, all them have the exceptional importance.
In the pictures carved in the rocks of Gobustan, the lifestyle of ancient people, labor, draw the special interest. The various subjects, scenes, human and animal related  to hunting, cattle-breeding, agriculture and other branches of household were carved on images on rocks.
During the Middle Ages miniature painting has been developed widely. Famous painters of Tabriz school of the XVI century miniature Sultan Muhammad, Muzaffar Ali, Mir Seyed Al had created unique miniature works of painting, which are kept in the museums of the world.  
The art of painting was in organic relation with Azerbaijani architecture in the Middle Ages. Monumental wall paintings in Sheki, Shusha, Guba, Ordubad, Lahij, etc. cities and settlements, were closely linked with the traditions of folk art. Wall paintings in Shaki khan palace, in particular, have gained popularity. Paintings crated by  Abbasgulu, Usta Ganbar Garabaghi , Ali Gulu, Qurban Ali, Shukur and other masters during XVIII-XIX centuries, are characterized by diversity, richness of decorative elements.
Monumental painting traditions (palace  of Sardar in  Yerevan of the middle of the twentieth century were destroyed, and 4 large-sized portraits drawn by Mirza Qadim Uravani on the walls of the palace were destroyed, too) was continued in a number of houses in Shusha by picture decoration.  
The development of easel painting of Azerbaijan is connected with the name of Mirza Qadim Iravani. He worked more effectively in the field of portrait genre, and his works Dancer, Dervish, Wrestler, Cavalry are perfect portraits from the literary point of view. During this period, motives of nature, flowers, birds in the works of Mir Nevvab landscape, flowers created by poet Khurshudbanu Natavan draw the attention.
Our painters achieved great successes in the field of scenic design, too. T. Salahov had created magnificent decors in art design made for plays of Anthony and Cleopatra, Hamlet (W. Shakespeare), Aydin (J. Cabbarılı), in particular, Koroglu opera (together with A. Fataliyev). M. Abdullaev had decorated, Leyli and Majnun, Koroglu” (U. Hajibayov), Chitra (Niyazi) ballet with bright and multi-color designs. Gobustan shadows (F. Garayev), Seven Beauties (G.garayev), Nasimi epos, 1001 Nights (F. Amirov) of T. Narimanbayov differ with romantic style design. B. Afqanlı, H. Mustafayev, S.M.Fefimenko, Y.A.Toropov, Ali Abbasov, Elnur Aslanov, B. Afandiyev, M. Aliyev, A. Seyidov, E. Mamedov, S. Hagverdiyeva, F. Ahmedov, G. Mamedov, F. A. Khalilov, F. Gafarov and other painters had special contributions to development of theater-decoration, and J. Azimov, K. Najafzadeh, N. Zeynalov, F. Bagirov, R.Ismayılov, M. Aghabayov, N. Baykishiyev and others had the most important services in the field of cinema.
During 90-ies of XX century, at the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan a new stage of development began in the national culture, as well as fine art. Painters like N. Kasimov, M. Tagiyev, S. Hagverdiyev, T. Javadov, F. Khalilov, A.Ibrahimov, B. Maratlı, N. Rzayev, A. Asgarov, U. Hagverdiyev and others created the original tables in painting genre.

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