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About painting


Painting is engraving of any picture or writing on different material by using cutting instrument. Painting is considered as a kind of decorative and applied art. Presently it is applied at household items as decoration. Due to difficulties of technical characteristics for a long time only skilful craftsmen were involved in this work and this art was highly appreciated for centuries.
Those who are engaged in decorative painting are called as decorative painters. They work with mechanical method, or by hand. In this case, they transfer pictures on metal, stone, wood, glass, and carry out the works of decorative ornament. Usually, painters are the artist and calligrapher as well.
Even in ancient times, people used to engrave words, images on different types of metals. In the past images were depicted on material mostly by cutting of forging method. In this case, a picture (or writing) was copied on the material in protruded or in the form of forged in depth of the material.

Decorative painting genres
Engraving first scratched on metal or copper and then worked with filling method is called as oford. The images carved on the stone are called - lithographic, images carved on wood is called as xylography. (Lito in Greek measn “stone”, xylo” means “wood”).
At present, painting is mostly used in book graphics (book design), easel graphics (reproduction of the work made in one copy), scientific research graphics (scientific tables, drawings, schemes, maps, training schedules, etc.).
Currently, industrial method of painting is used more. Though it is strange to hear painting method is used in E-cards, invitations, industrial products, even at clothing tags, etc. At present, painting method (depicting of letters, images, and writings) is used to decorate watches, weapons, bracelets, lighters.  At present, one of the areas of wide application of the painting is jewelry art.
The non-ferrous metal layers, bones of elephant and other animals, plastic made small geometric shape figures are used to decorate the wood, metal and ceramics, and then patterns of different shapes are created.
It is also used in decoration of architectural elements (columns, column header), balconies, etc along with household items like jewelry box, pens, boxes, mirrors, nard playing board, rahil, chairs, musical instruments, etc.).

Decorative painting tools
Painters of decorative items use various tools to cut the material. Puncheon is a tool like nails. With its help a variety of different depth and width of the lines can be drawn. Graver is a decorative pencil. Cutter is rotating cutting tool.
In fact, these tools are now used only in art of jewelry. They are used in decoration of swords weapons and ammunition like a souvenir, and so on. And in other areas the painters of modern epoch use laser. In this case, it is possible to depict the letters and pictures on the material more clearly, with sharp corners, and more accurate images of different density can be engraved. And to decorate the metal and glass with images painters use different chemical acids

History of decorative painting
It is accepted that the decorative painting was appeared first in China. Graphics were used in the preparation of clock dials. Later in IV BC there was a need in preparation of uneven scales for water clocks, putting of exact images in compasses. Then decorative painting art was developed in Greece and Central Asia. In Europe the graphics began to develop with development of astronomy, preparation of marine devices.  Also metal works, wood carving, decoration of weapons etc became fashionable. This art soon became spread in the Middle East, including Iran, Turkey, Egypt, as well as Spain, Morocco.

The history of decorative painting in Azerbaijan
In Azerbaijan craftsmen of Tabriz, Ardabil, Ganja, Shusha have used elements of decorative painting more. They were engaged in decorating of buildings, mosques, books.
Azerbaijanis played a major role in development of decorative painting. The art of decorative painting initially was mastered by Chines and Uighurs then it passed Azerbaijanis during the Elkhanids power. Even during the Safavid Shah Ismail Khatai famous Tabriz art school was founded at the palace of the Safavids. A well-known painter Behzad returned here from Herat, and has led this school. During this era Behzad was involved in particular with the decoration of the works of the great Azerbaijani poet Nizami.
Iranian miniaturist Kamaladdin Bahzad Tabrizli, known in the Western world as the East Rafael is a pupil of Seyid Ahmed. And self Seyid Ahmed was among one of the talanted Azerbaijani painters working in the palace of Iranian Abu Said. He was one of the miniaturists of the Teymurids period. His old writings with beautiful miniatures, Azerbaijani Aghamirak, who decorated the work of Nizami “Khamsa”, belonged to this school, too.
The elements of the decorative painting are visible in handmade works in Azerbaijan. For example, the patterns of Azerbaijani carpets are known all over the world. One of these beautiful carpets was reflected in picture of the XV century Dutch painter Hans Memling Mariam with child (Maria mit den kinde). The artist covered under the feet of Mariam one of Azerbaijani carpets.
The art shield (Mohammed Momun) stored in Moscow weapon chamber and the throne of Shah Ismail Khatai (XVI century, Topkapi museum) are considered the best examples of decorative painting in history of Azerbaijan. The Blue Mosque in Tabriz is considered by all specialists as valuable and famous in terms of architectural beauty. Adornments in tomb of Sheikh Safi in Ardebild are well known. The tomb of Momina Khatun in Nakhchivan built during the Atabeys (XII century) of Azerbaijan is a monument of high value. Buildings remained from the Shirvanshahs period (XIV century) are especially important.
There were Azerbaijanis that adorned the Palace of Akbar the Great in Agra (India). After the victory of Sultan Selim over Shah Ismail in Chaldiran battle he brought about 3000 artists to Istanbul. Therefore, the Green Mosque in Bursa, famous with its beautiful tiles, was built by Azerbaijani craftsmen.
The period of Soviet Union was a development period of the decorative painting. Mainly images began to depict on the various materials by method of mechanical drawings. At present, the art boxes, worked with complex rhythmic patterns, jewelry boxes, gift folders etc are considered as examples of the decorative painting. 

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