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Turkic tribes of Azerbaijan



The ancient Turkic tribes of Azerbaijan
Historical sources shows that many states established in the territory of Azerbaijan and some of them even rose to the level of empire.  According to written sources, the first combination of tribes in territory of Azerbaijan was established at the end of the Bronze Age. From those sources, it was proved several times that Azerbaijan was the native land of Turkic speaking people and ethnos in ancient times. The Turkish tribes contributed to formation of the Azerbaijani people are as follows:

The first written sources related to tribes lived in lands, neighbouring to Azerbaijan belongs to XIII-XXV BC and they were written in Urmiya Lake in the Akkadian language But the history of Turkic power in Azerbaijani lands dates back to 4th millennium BC. The sources provide information on arattas, kutis, lullabies, qutis and khurris. But according to scientific sources 1st Turkic state emerged in Azerbaijani lands was Aratta.  The information on Aratta people was given in Shumer legend. Aratta state was emerged at the 1st half of III millennium. Its land covered south and south-east of lands around the Urmia Lake.   Modern Gazvin-Zanjan area was within the lower boundaries of the Aratta.

In the second half of III millennium BC Sumer city-states suffered to collapse. This time, in the southern part of the lake Urmiya a union of tribes of lullubu (Lullubi) was established.  Su ve Turukki tribes helped Lullubu to emerge in the stage of history. The realization of this tribe state was possible in XXIII century BC. In the second millennium united Lullubu state was divided and small governments emerged in its place.

In the third millennium BC around the west and south –west parts of Lake Urmiya tribal union of Quti tribes was available. They united as a state after the second half of that millennium. Qutis were allies with Sumerians, but strongly objected to the aggressive policy of Akkadians. Quti state was the union kins. It was consisted of subar, turuk, ckuman, bars, bori, gargar, azeri, zengi and so on Turkic tribes. Sources said that at the end of XXIII century BC qutis were removed from Mesopotamia. Their rule lasted 91 years and 40 days. Quti’s most important feature was its democratic management. The capital of Quti was present Kirkuk (Arrapha) city.

The geographical area of living of Turukkis covered an area from Lake Urmiya to Zanjan. Turukkis emerged in the stage of history together with qutis and lullubis.
At the end of third millennium BC and early second millennium BC the language of tribes and other ethnic groups lived in the territory of Azerbaijan was united in bigger language group of Zaqr-Elam, Zaqros, Kaspi and others. 

Subars also lived around the lake Urmiya Basin in the III-II millenniums. Subars contributed not only in formation of Azerbaijani but other Turkic peoples, too. Subars lived between the two rivers (Tigris-Euphrates), the Semitic tribes came here after united around the city-state of Akkad and had been a factor of its strengthening. Later, subars being subjected to attacks of Akkad, khuri, Semitic-Assyrian tribes were divided into three branches:   the west, middle and east. A significant part of those settled in Urmiya Lake Basin moved towards Siberia and Turkestan. Siberia’s name is related with subars. Subars from the middle part settled in upper area of the Tigris and the Euphrates and in the west of Lake Van, between present Bitlis and Diyarbakir. 

One of the main tribes inhabiting the vast territories of Azerbaijan after Albanians were gargars. Gargars is very ancient ethnos. As there was no source, it is difficult to say something exact about their settlement in the Albania from the North Caucasus territory. There is information about gargars - one of the oldest Turkic tribes, in the work of Homer (“Iliad”) at early the first millennium. Gargars lived compactly. They were one of the main tribes of Albania and used to live in lower parts of Kura, in Artsakh, in the north-eastern Albania, as well as in the South Azerbaijan, the North Caucasus and present-day Armenia. 

Semitic tribes had settled at the beginning of the third millennium BC in the north of the Euphrates, Tigris River. When Achaemenid\'s political influence reached the Northern Caucasus Mountains, living in the over the tribes began to appear on the stage of history. Most prominent of them is Kaspis and one name of the Caspian Sea - Kaspi is their memory. Kaspis are relatives of one of the strongest nations in ancient times - kassis. The area of their living is Mugan, Lankaran lowland.

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