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Aghgoyunlu state



Aggoyunlus played an important role in the history of Azerbaijan was from Oguz kin. Aghgoyunlu tribes lived in VI-VII centuries around Lake Sevan and Araz River of Azerbaijan, and Alagez lowlands. During Mongol invasions Aggoyunlus moved to Eastern Anatolia and in the mid of XIV century, after fall of Elkhanids state they were united under the leadership of Tur Ali Bey in a strong and united tribe and  participated in political events of the epoch. At the end of the XIV century, Qara Osman (1394-1435) had important contribution in strengthening of tribal unity. At that time Diyarbekir city was the centre of this tribal unity. In 1453 when Uzun Hasan became a tribal leader his position was further strengthened and cities and fortresses in Eastern Anatolia belonging to Garagoyunlular  passed to them. Uzun Hasan had established close relations with Trabzon Greek state. In 1461 during the campaign of Sultan II Mehmet he had sent her mother Sara khatun for negotiations and tried to prevent this attack. And despite of conclusion of  Yassichaman peace treaty to save Trabzon was impossible.
Uzun Hasan had established Aggoyunlu state with capital Tabriz after victory on Jahanshah in 1467, and on his son Hasan Ali in the following year. Lands of this country included areas from River Euphrates in the west to Khorasan in the east and Kura River in the north to Persian Gulf in the south. Uzun Hasan had annexed Eastern Georgia to Aggoyunlu state, including Tiflis,  in 1477 after victory over Bagrat VI eastern Georgia.
But loss of Trabzon deprived Aghgoyunlu of access to the Black Sea. Rivalry on Garaman had tensioned relations between Aghgoyunlu and Ottoman Empire and led to war. IN 1472-73 years Uzun Hasan began military operations against the Ottomans. Although he won the victory in Malatya battle but was defeated in Otluqbeli battle. In January 6, 1478 after death of Uzun Hasan the state of Aghgoyunlu weakened and Ismail Safavi defeated Sultan Alvand in Sharur battle in 1501 and put an end to the state of Aghgoyunlu.
Tabriz was the capital city         

Rulers in power:        
1453-1478 Uzun Hasan                                         
1478-1490 Yaqub Mirza                                           
1490-1492 Baysungur                                           
1492-1497 Rustam Mirza                                           
1497-1499 Godek Ahmad                                           
1499 (May-December), Mohammed Mirza                                           
1500-1501 Alvand Mirza

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