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Land cover


The relief and climate plays an important role in the formation of Azerbaijan’s top-soil. As a result of the influence of these factors soil on the territory of Azerbaijan Republic are located in the vertical zones. Republican soils are of 25 types, and divided into 60 sub-types.
Chestnut (gray-brown) soils in the republic spread between 400-800 m. of elevations. The amount of humus in these soil is 2,5-3,5%. In Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains, in the Ganja-Gazakh and Mil-Garabakh plains, in Ajinohur and Jeyranchol low mountainous zones these soils rise up to 600 m, and in Nakhichevan over the 1000 m. Gradually the light chestnut soils replace chestnut and dark chestnut soils. In Great Caucasus, Lesser Caucasus, Ganja-Kazakh and Mil- Garabakh plains light chestnut soils, in Ajinohur dark chestnut soils are dominant.
In mountains at 700-2000 m. of height the mountain-forest soils were formed. In lower zones, relatively dry areas brown mountain-forest soils are spread. In these soil with sparse forests and bushes the humus content is 5-7%. In upper parts brown mountain-forest soils can be found. Humus in beech and hornbeam forests reaches 5-6%. In Lankaran region due to the much precipitation the brown mountain-forest soils cover a large area. Due to the dry climate in Nakhichevan this soil type does not exist.
In south-east of the Great Caucasus in Azerbaijan, in the north of Garabakh and Murovdagh mountains ranges black soils are located. Humus in these lands is 6-6.5% . In lower parts of the Talysh Mountains and Lankaran lowland yellow and red soils are available. In these soils with humus of 8-12% the amount of iron-oxide is much.
Alazan-Ayrichay valley, Samur-Davachi lowland and  Shollar meadow covered with the steppe-forest soils. In the northern foothills of the Talysh Mountains alluvial-meadow soils, on the banks of Kyzylaghaj Gulf, along the Kura River and Shirvan collector the marsh-meadow soils were formed. 

Land resources
Land resources included lands used in agriculture and lands covered with forest. 4227 thousand hectares of area are used in agriculture in republic. They are not suitable for agriculture badlands areas, swamps, and mountainous areas, etc. which forms altogether the country\'s land fund.
Land fund in Azerbaijan is 8641.5 thousand hectares. Its 77% is used. In agriculture fertile lands consists of 44% of sowing areas and tillage, 4% of long-term sowing, 26% of the hay field and pastures. The sown areas occupy 1454 thousand hectares of the country.
Areas of land not used in agriculture are 40% of the fund. 13% of these lands is private agricultural lands, 12.1% forests, 2.7% bushes, 0.8% swamps, 3.6% water basins, 31.6% other land (roads, villages, cities, industrial facilities).
In Azerbaijan there is per capita 1.08 ha of land fund, 0.2 ha of sown area, 0.6 ha of suitable land.


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