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Marxist-Leninist ideology


Since the beginning of the XX century, Marxist-Leninist ideology occupied a dominant position in Azerbaijan; the reason was that the existing regime was set up on the ideas of Marxism and Leninism. After the establishment of the Soviet power in Azerbaijan, the activities of oppositional ideologies in the country were suspended, the study of non-Marxist philosophy and social and political problems was stopped.
Among the thinkers of this period creativity and work of a statesman, physician, writer Nariman Narimanov (1870-1925) should be emphasized. N. Narimanov, as a representative of the Enlightenment, and then after the 1905-1907 defender of the position of the Marxist-Leninist philosophy and one of Marxist philosophers, 1917, in his articles and monographs “The path of knowledge of Communism (manuscript form in the Azerbaijani and Russian languages) revealed the principles of dialectical and historical materialism, developed a philosophical terminology in the Azerbaijani language. He explained the idea of disseminating scientific knowledge and the separation of religion from the state, criticized the concept of art for art\'s sake. N. Narimanov - promoter of democracy and humanism, consistent internationalist, castigated the national carnage and national inequality. Thoughts of the legacy of Marxism and Lenin in particular –as the teacher of all the oppressed and of all humanity would be rational for the East, occupied a special place in N. Narimanov’s public views. The real policy of the Soviet government completely lost N. Narimanov’s confidence with its government and leader, and in his letters to his son openly express their protest against terrorist policy of the dictatorship of Lenin, Stalin. N. Narimanov, who courageously pointed out the contradiction between Marxist theory and the dictatorship of the proletariat, in his work To the history of our revolution in the suburbs, wrote of looting and mass execution, arranged by the Soviets in the East and Azerbaijan. 
In XX century the number of victims of the communist regime reached about 120 million people. For the sake of the Marxist-Leninist ideology, 120 million people were executed, deported to concentration camps, sent into exile, destroyed in the Siberian steppes, tortured with violence alien to humanity and humiliated in the worst prisons, shot and killed by the communists. 
Different priorities in the socio-political life and public opinion in Azerbaijan in 1920, their reflection in the public consciousness led to a political and moral corruption of the nation, the fall of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the gradual planting of Marxism ideas into the ideological life and the formation of a new social order. In the years of the new power the political and ideological opposition, particularly the intelligentsia was periodically destroyed through repression and terror. Thus, the prerequisites for becoming a Marxist-Leninist ideology of the dominant ideology. Marxist-Leninist philosophy, which was transformed into one dominating ideology by means of focused and consistent political propaganda, had to go through a unique evolutionary path during the Soviet era. During this period, a group of thinkers of Azerbaijan, appositionally-minded to the proletarian dictatorship and Marxist philosophy, became the victim of reprisals, the rest - after immigrating to foreign countries continued to work in philosophical circles, dealing in politics simultaneously. Thus, non-Marxist philosophy of Azerbaijan extended and developed in exile - in the eastern and western countries thanks  to A. Agaoglu, A. Huseynzade M.E.Rasulzadeh, Hussein Baykara, Mirzabala Mammadzadeh Abdulwahab Yurdsevar and others. 
These ideas, emanating from the specific to the philosophical thought of Azerbaijan principles of Pan-Turkism, Islamism and modernity, and characterized as the ideology  of the colonial East heyday, were important in terms of Turkic peoples’ preparation for independence in the global space of late XIX - early XX centuries. It is a consequence of this necessity that after the fall of the Soviet regime, these three principles, passing the test of time, became the main provisions of the ontological and sociological aspects of the national ideology and philosophical outlook. 
Since 20-ies of XX century to the mid 80\'s the dominance of the Marxist-Leninist ideology in Azerbaijan was conditioned only by the presence of the philosophy of the social regime, and this philosophy was not any good, except for the service of ideological propaganda machine of an unstable regime. 
In this situation, the creation and promotion of alternatives to Marxism and the communist ideology in Azerbaijan exercises was effected under the leadership of Asif Efendiev (Asif Ata). He created a new maximalist doctrine, based on the banned Western teachings, the main principle and purpose of which was the focus on human morality and the preparation of the wise man. The thesis of Without improvement of man the improvement of society is impossible, openly contradicted Marxism, while the eastern philosophical thought about the man and his spiritual world was proposed foreground. The most optimum variant was the intermediate position between these poles and their synthesis. 
After the collapse of the Soviet Union the Marxist-Leninist ideology quickly collapsed in Azerbaijan, as in the other republics of the former empire. 

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