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Pipeline transport


The establishment of the pipeline transport in Azerbaijan coincides with the period of development of oil industry. In 1878 the first oil pipeline of 12 kms of length was installed from Balakhany oil fields to oil refinery plant. Supply of Baku oil to the world market became possible in 1903-05 as a result of the construction of the Baku-Batumi oil pipeline. With length of 860 km the crude oil are transported through this pipeline since 1930. 
After an increase of oil and gas fields in other regions of the republic, far from the Apsheron peninsula, in the Caspian Sea, and as a result of the construction of large oil refineries and pipelines, the oil network had been expanded here. Ali Bayramlı-Baku oil pipeline was constructed in 1963. Its total length is 134 km. Oil Rocks-Baku, Siyazan-Baku oil pipelines were constructed during this period as well. The length of oil pipelines in Baku is more than 4.6 thousand kms.  
Transportation of oil via pipelines is three times cheaper than via railway.  
Installation of gas pipelines began at the same time with creation of this industry area.  Garadagh-Aghstafa-Tbilisi-Iran-Astara-Gazi-Magomed gas pipelines served to provide this type of fuel to the Transcaucasus. The Garadag-Agstafa Tbilisi gas pipeline constructed in 1959-60 has in length of more than 511 km. 
Zira-Baku, Oil Rocks-Baku Siyazan-Sumgait, Garadagh-Salyan, Qalmaz-Shirvan, Siyazan-Guzdek, Garadag-Baku, Garadag-Sumgayit gas pipeline deliver the natural fuel to consumers. From main lines the branches are separated in a number of settlements. For example, Yevlakh- Sheki, Yevlakh -Aghdam-Nakhichevan gas pipelines. 
For delivery of oil from Azerbaijani section of Caspian Sea to the world two new oil pipeline routes were defined in Oct 19, 1995. 
The first one is called Northern route. Baku-Grozny- Tikhovetsk-Novorossiysk oil pipeline’s  total length is 1346 km, including 230 km in Azerbaijan. In October 25, 1997, the first oil was deliver via this pipeline. In the future, 5 million tons of oil will be possible to deliver per year. 
Second oil pipeline is the western route. 480 km of the line with total length of 920 km passes Azerbaijan. This line was commissioned on April 17, 1999. Via the 2nd oil pipeline extended from Baku to Supsa on Georgia\'s Black Sea coast (near Poti) port the oil is delivered from the Caspian Sea to Western countries. This route will allow the transportation of 15 million tons of oil to world markets per year. 
In Turkey, up to Ceyhan port located on the shores of the Mediterranean port, the Baku-Supsa oil pipeline has been built. The total length of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline is 1730 km. Its 468 km passes through the territory of Azerbaijan, 225 km through the territory of Georgia, 1037 km through Turkey. The pipeline will allow delivering annually 50 million tons oil to world markets.

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